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FATA is kept Backward and also in Status Quo because of certain Power Players who want to keep it Backward and also Keep the People of FATA without Education and Without Democratic Rights and they want to Keep the tribal as slaves , Even After the British left in 1947 and Pakistan was Made an independent country FATA , was left as a status Quo till now 2015 .

Lord Curzon and the British Empire and East India company is still Alive it seems for these poor Tribals of FATA , and its Power is still maintained by the Loyal Followers of Lord Curzon in this Day of 21,st Century , the Black Sahib is still Alive and in command when the Gora Sahib left and left their affairs to the Kala sahibs of Pakistan.

Kala Sahibs  Bureaucracy in Service of Lord Curzon  : 


British had while Governing since 1857 , to 1947 had been doing Government with certain class of People from Sub continent which they hand Picked and choose from , Poor and Slum Dogs with no Noble backgrounds and  rewarded them with Money and properties to Serve their Purposes , now they are Powerful families and they are found every where in Pakhtunkhwa and FATA  and Now are Power full Political families .

These People were mainly  Mullahs , Maliks and  Military People , British recognized  that they cannot win the Pashtuns and in order to win they need to use Islam and Prominent families to control the Pashtuns and especially FATA into Subjugation. In Order to influence the Pashtun they readily Bought the Mullahs and Religious People and Heavily used Islam to control the Pashtuns , they also used them  to Deceive the Pashtun in many Ways .

The Creation of pakistan and Muslim League Creation was also done via the same Loyal Servants, as two Nation theory did not work here as there were no Non-Muslims here and same Families Paved the Way for British and also making of FATA as Direct Rule Entity via these Same Maliks and Servants Loyal to british . Malik’s would be Awarded , Monthly Money and awards known as ”’Spinah Jamah”’/ White Clothes or ””’Lungi / Turban  ”””or honor etc . which basically meant Money Dished out to maliks and Mullahs .

Apart from Mullahs they also used local People and Servants of East Indian company who were Awarded by Titles , Like ”””’Sir”””””’ ( Highest  Loyalist to Queen of England )  , ””””’ Sahibzada,s””””” ( Reported to Governor and Lords ) and Khan Bahudur,s ( Reported to Governors and Sirs etc  )  , ”””Arbabs””’ ( Lower Degree Tax Collectors Patwaris and Munshi,s of Land Revenue Department reporting to commissioners etc )  ,

These People were rewarded with Money and Lands and rewarded.They Got high Profile Power full Jobs in Royal Bureaucracy of British under Lord Curzon although they were sons and children of Mullahs. The Current Situation is not much Different now under Punjabi establishment .

Examples of British Loyalists are :

1. Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan family from Topi Swabi , he was the one to Make the Durand Line and also Dividing the Pashtuns into Afghans on the West of Durand Line and Also Pashtuns in East of Durand Line .  Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan was also the chief Negotiator of the Lord Curzon British in Durand line commission in on 11 Nov 1883.  His family and he was rewarded with Jobs and big Positions and No wonder that the Pakhtunkhwa Bureaucracy is situated and the Secretariat housing the Bureaucratic offices  is situated on road Named after him in Peshawar called the Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan Road. His Kith and Kin Enjoys top Positions in  currently in Bureaucracy and also the FATA secretariat. This explains a lot what the Current Bureaucracy which controls FATA and Pakhtunkhwa thinks like as it is controlled by the People who,s Fathers and Grandfathers were very Loyal to the East Indian company which the Pashtun always fought and resisted some People from the Pashtuns were serving them Loyally and they were instrumental in dividing the Pashtuns . This family also found the highest title with British as Loyalists but they never worked for Pashtuns or FATA rather they wanted it to remain Backwards .

2. Khan Bahadur Ghulam Haider khan Sherpao , who was Grandfather of Aftab Ahmad Khan Sherpao the Politicians who was CM of Pakhtunkhwa for three Times and he did nothing for FATA and he maintained the Status Quo of FATA , and did not make it Settled area , in fact the 1973 Constitution under his Brother Hayat Khan Sherpao was also instrumental in Keeping the Status Quo when Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Promulgated the 1973 First Pakistani Constitution, Hayat Sherpao Did not do a single Iota for the Tribals and he remained true to his family spirit of Keeping the Pashtuns Divided and Week as FATA , Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan separate  , as did Khan Bahudur Ghulam Haider Khan Sherpao, who was British Ally and Agent who  would use his Influence with the Mullahs and Distribute Money among them for Serving the British and also change their enemies from British occupiers to Bolshevik Russian who were no Where on Soil of Indian and Afghanistan . The Sherpao were Anti – Pashtun Nationalists and it is so Weird that they have formed as party claiming to be Pashtun Nationalists , they are Geared for Deceiving the Pashtuns a Bit more in their Third Generation .  This is reason that they were in Favor with British and currently they are in Favor with Punjabi Establishment who rewarded Mr Sherpao with the Interior Ministry under Military Dictator General Musharraf who got under him all the Military Bases Lended to USA and also Kill Two Time PM Benazir Bhutto and CM and Governor Baluchistan Bugti ,  a thorn in designs of their Masters . The Khan bahadur title was awarded to this family by the British for their loyalties to British . Muslim league was found as place of these British loyalists although later Aftab ahmad sherpao was offered place in PPP Pakistan people’s party and was CM Pakhtunkhwa 3 times and he never ever looked at plight of Pashtuns or FATA with any kindness .

3, The Khan Bahudur Ali Qulis of Bannu and Karak who were Agents of British from the start as they made alliances with British and was one of the first ones to be loyal to col Mackeson First  commissioner of Peshawar living in 1 The Mall Peshawar Cantonment of where they used to live in servant Quarter and they started their love affair with British and were rewarded with This Bungalow house after the British left in 1947 for this outstanding service to British and being Traitors to Pashtuns cause , they Got prominent position in Muslim league with Their sons and daughters always loyal to British establishment and later to Punjabi establishment, the cause of Pashtuns or offering democracy to Pashtuns were not their priority at All , and FATA to remain as backward was their mission and Ali Quli Khan remained as One of political agents of Waziristan and also his loyalty was legendary to British . His sons and daughter are famous Begum Kalsoom and also Saifullahs of fame of Muslim league and PPP , Pakistan people’s party and they being CM or governors Pakhtunkhwa never ever looked into cause of FATA never ever . And their role of making Pashtun backward under FCR by their fathers The political agent Ali Quli Khan who sons also reminded as Generals as Habib ullah khattak and also later General Quli Khan who was about to replace General Musharraf as Army chief .  The Ali Qulis were awarded Khan bahadur title by the British for third Loyalties and they also found their place in Jinnah’s Muslim league as well .

4,  The Jhagra Khan Bahadur’s of Peshawar , were also Loyal to British and their Fathers served as Loyal captains and Lt in British Army and their son , who also happened to get power in Muslim League under Jinnah and also the Sahibzadas and Khan Bahadur’s were all Amalgamated in Muslim League by the British and they ensured starting from Jinnah and later in Many government with or without the Army generals Support till today , who also followed the Policy of subjugation and dividing and Ruling the Pashtuns , Muslim leaguers were the original sinners and they were under Jinnah maintained the slave nature of FATA and made Tribals backwards by denying them Education and also democracy and right of self determination which they promised to Pakistan after they were promising freeform and Independence . What they were Promising for the rest of Pakistan they were not offering to FATA and PATA and also FR areas where the Pashtuns were living and Baluchistan where the Pashtun live was also part of this as It still has not been at par with  rest of Pakistan and most of Pashtun areas are still under FCR even today . The Baluchistan where majority Pashtun live was Separated from Pakhtunkhwa and also. Named as Baluchistan in 1971 before that it was Kalat state and merged in Pakhtunkhwa under Punjabi establishment after one unit dissolution . In this scam Muslim leaguers were partners of Military establishment and had given their full support and currently their leaders are the. Biggest Hurdle of Reforms of FATA after it is being headed by Punjabi chauvinist Mr Nawaz Sharif of Amritsar jati umra a land of Sikhs and Golden temple and he has named his home in Lahore donated by Military establishment in Raiwind . His governor a Punjabi Sardar Jee Mehtab Abbasi is a Non Pashtun and non Resident of FATA and extremely prejudiced man against the Pashtuns . How can one expect any Good from these people for the resident of FATA. Who’s interest is to Keep FATA and Pashtuns backward . Khan bahadur title was awarded to these khans for their localities to British and they also found place in jinnah Muslim league as well .

5. Fazlu Rahman father was Mufti Mehmood and they were part of JUI , a Deobandi organization that helped the British in Subjugating the Pashtuns on Basis of Islam and religion , although they claim counter wise , Grandfather of Fazlur Rehman was a Subedar in British Army and he was a Loyalist of british .  true to the Same opportunism they Exhibited with the British and they were the ones to get money from British for Paying the mullah under their control in JUI ( Jamaat ulema India ) , money they used to tell the Mullah that British are ””’Ahle Kitab ”””’, people of the book and the germans and russian are kafir ( which was not true as russian Are orthodox christians and so are the germans and italians Axis in world war 1 and 2  for , being more Christian then the Protestant British ) . it is curious these Same JUI and JI collectively known as MMA ( Mullah Militry Alliances ) are still being used like the british by the Punjabis now for keeping the Status Quo of FATA . they were also used in East Pakistan as ””’Al-Shamas ”” and ””’Al-Badar ””” to control the Majority Pakistani known as Bengalis and Impose the power of Punjabistan as Pakistani Establishment is called .  which Back Fired and caused the Separation of East Pakistan into Bangladesh , Yet the Punjabi Establishment Wants to use them still in Baluchistan , FATA and Even FANA to control the local Population who are Increasingly wanting to ask for their Rights .  The behaviour of JUI and JI ( Jamaat Islami ) , another sister  deobandi organisation is also  Punjabi Establishment Secret Arm and will try its Best to keep FATA Backward and would overtly say otherwise as It has been Saying , FATA as a Separate Province yet it does not want it to join it with Pakhtunkhwa and make it part of it , basically MMA types want the Pashtun to be divided and also it wants the FATA Status Quo and week under Direct rule of Political Agents so that it can used for ””’Jihadi Activities”” and terrorism against Afghanistan India , Iran and even China . Basically Money Making Schemes for Punjab via War on Neighbours.

6. Imran Khan is also a New Establishment Created Power house as PTI from the Mullahs of JI and JUI who are part of PTI as members although most of leader are not Distinguishable from their Past which is MMA Party , and yet it Professes to be a Modern party by Making fool of People with its Socialist Themed flags and Dances on stage and Music parities  it is nothing but ””’MMA  in Jeans”” , and that is best Description for it and it wants to do what is true for MMA , it does the same and is involved in paying Government and official tax payer money to terrorists Mullahs and madrissahs openly and also it was Status Quo for FATA , and it serves the Punjabi Establishment and FATA is launching Pad for Wars on Neighbour countries . PTI  is very Clear it wants partnership with MMA mullahs and terrorists and not with Real Political Powers like PPP and even ANP but it wants to Serve the Punjabi Establishment which will in Turn reward it with Seats in Pakhtunkhwa and maybe baluchistan and Sind , but the Punjabi establishment is clear in not giving it base in Punjab ( the Same Policy it did with MMA ) .

These People should be Recognised and they would continue to make Slaves of  Pashtuns and would continue to implement FCR ( Frontier Crimes Regulations ) to the their last Breath and they and their grandsons are like Snakes in  the grass and would never give ””Azadi”” , Democracy and Freedom to the FATA tribals and would never allow them to Join””’ Pakhtunkhwa ”” ,as the only way forward as Pakhtunkhwa has the Human resource and people to Take FATA forward and share common language , culture and also common History with FATA tribals and they can help them the Most. The Common interests of FATA and Pakhtunkhwa and Increases votes would make the FATA strong and also make more representation in National Assembly and also have more say in  Developmental projects and have more power vis -vis Punjabis and this is not Acceptable to Punjabi establishment .

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FATA MAP



CONSTITUTION ARTICLE 247 FATA GOVERNANCE 


One of the most Corrupt Region in Pakistan is FATA , Federally Administered Area of Tribal Area , which is controlled not by Constitution of Pakistan , which is not implemented here .

FATA is Governed  by just one Article of constitution which is called , Article 247 , which has implemented laws that  are 150 Years old and made by British Empire by Lord Curzun a British Viceroy of East India company called , the  FCR , Frontier crimes Regulation .


Area of  Pakistan as FATA not under Pakistan Constitution:  


FATA consists of the following Areas , as according to Article 247 of constitution , which are not governed by Pakistan constitution and it laws and neither the Parliament National Assembly or the Provincial Assembly Governs it  are as Follows:

A:   7 Tribal  Agencies from North to South Along the Durand Line which are: 

  1. Bajaur Agency
  2. Mommand Agency
  3. Khyber Agency 
  4. Orakzai Agency 
  5. Kurrum Agency
  6. North Waziristan
  7. South Waziristan

B:  6 FR or Frontier Areas from North to South while Being Inside of Pakhtunkhwa Area  : 

  1. Fr Peshawar 
  2. Fr Kohat 
  3. Fr Lakki Marwat 
  4. Fr Bannu 
  5. Fr Tank 
  6. Fr DI Khan  

These are the Enslaved Areas Federal Areas ( Fr Areas )  , although the Fall geographically Inside of boundaries of Pakhtunkhwa Province .

C:  6 PATA AREAS Provincially Administered tribal Areas in Pakhtunkhwa  :

  1. Dir Upper
  2. Dir Lower
  3. Swat (including Kalam)
  4. The Tribal Area in Kohistan District
  5. Malakand District
  6. The Tribal Area adjoining (Batagram, Allai and Black Mountain of Hazara),Mansehra District.
  7. The former state of Amb in Hazara.

D:  6 PATA AREAS Provincially Administered tribal Areas in Pakhutnkhwa Annexed Area now in Baluchistan Previously under state of Kalat  that was Part of Pakhtunkhwa till 1971 :

  1. Zhob District
  2. Loralai District (excluding Duki Tehsil)
  3. Dalbandin Tehsil of Chagai District
  4. Marri Tribal Territory in Sibi District
  5. Bugti Tribal Territory in Sibi District

These are the Enslaved Areas Federal Areas ( Fr Areas )  , although the Fall geographically Inside of boundaries of Baluchistan Province .

They are also tribal Areas but they are not Governed by FATA secretariat but are controlled by the Pakhtunkhwa secretariat  and Baluchistan Secretariat those area which were Previously under FATA secretariat and “”Safron Ministry “”but they also come under ambit of President of Pakistan Direct rule under Article 247 and Lord Curzon Laws of East Indian company meant to Enslave the Pashtuns and not the Parliament of Pakistan or even the Parliament of Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan .

FATA secretariat and their Administration is also confusing as one Member from each District sits in Provincial Assembly of Pakhtunkhwa but he cannot make Rule for his PATA , constituency and has to seek Permission of President of Pakistan .

Furthermore PATA is under 247 of 1973 Constitution that still maintains the Draconian Law of FCR 40 even under PATA and one is denied of Human Rights and Rights Guaranteed under the constitution of Pakistan that is inherent in Basic unchangeable Right Articles that forms the basis of

History of FATA Laws : 

It is one of Big Mysteries of Pakistan is FATA really part of Pakhtunkhwa or not ?? , why Pakistan and Jinnah would keep the British Laws intact Behaving like Dictators and why they want to Impose this on People of FATA  Draconian Laws that separates it from Pakhtunkhwa , While Pakhtunkhwa had Article 247 Like Lord Curzons Laws with FCR 40 Laws just as Currently held in FATA currently .

After the Durand Line was Made starting from Gilgit Baltistan “” FANA ( Federally Administered Northern Areas )

IT was in 1930,s that Massacre of “””Qisa Khawani Peshawar””” , Happened and it was Bacha khan and their Supporters who were Butchered by the British by Firing on unarmed Protesters who were Protesting not allowing Political Party ANP Awami National Party Made by Bacha Khan to raise Voice of Pashtuns Against British these Same Draconian and Against Human right Laws that it had only Implement in this Part of the World and only Against Pashtuns .

It is these Black Laws  that are now Part of Article 247 of Pakistan constitution, and its Democratic right to Govern by the British and they imprisoned Bacha Khan and people of Peshawar and Pashtuns of Pakhtunkhwa rose to defend him and 1000 People of Peshawar fell in front of Machine Guns that were Manned by Punjab regiment with Sepoy,s from Punjab  from Mardan Center under Gora Officers , after the Nepalese Gorkhas , refused to Fire on un -Armed People famously .

The British Govt under it Elected Democratic PM sent a Team to Investigate and the Team came and held a Judicial Inquiry and it asked Bacha Khan and their followers , the reason and they demanded the removal of these Black Laws and hence it was Agreed to remove the Laws from whole “”NWFP”” , which is currently Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan as one province at that time .

IT is Ironic that FATA was Kept as such as even by the British cantonment would be Attacked by these Tribal and loot and Plunder the cantonment , and Peshawar areas and their Killings . so FATA was kept as Such to Protect themselves from these Tribes of FATA .In order to do that British used a cunning Tactics via their bureaucracy that were run by Grandson of Mir Jaffar “‘ President Skinder Mirza “”‘  from East Pakistan who was Titled “”” Traitor of India “”” and his name is Synomous to Traiotr , he was Later President of Pakistan and some Qadiani Elements in Bureaucracy of Pakistan and Pakhtunkhwa and the Pashtun Politicians like “”Sherpao Family”” and the “”Sahibzadas””,  “Babers and “”Arbabs “”Deobandi Mullahs of Pashtun Area , who had Pledged Allegiance Punjabi Based Deobandis with close Ties to British at that time under Qasim Naintawi and Mehmod ul Hassan and Obaid Ullah Sindhi all Punjabis and Previous Tutors in East Indian company of Arabic and Persian under “”Sir Syed Ahmad Khan “”” an Indian Pashtun who had been translator from the British and Mr Durand and Rooskeepal British Political Agents representing East India company Viceroy “””Lord Curzon”” in Durand Line commission.

One of them Qadiani Sahbzaada Abdul Qayum Khan was Man who drew the Durand line and had represented the British as Tehsildar Khyber Agency . was Astute Qadiani and this is the Line that has Divided the Pashtuns into Afghan and Pashtuns although they are “””Synomous Words””” actually and then Pashtuns were Later divided and Rule into Tribals and Pashtuns of Pakhtunkhwa and then Baluchistan was Annexed from it as “””Baluchistan “”, It should Also be Mentioned that Afghan rulers at time of Durand Line has Entrusted a Qadiani ” Sahibzada Abdul Latif “”” best friend of “”Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan”””  of Swabi who had converted him to Qadianism , and who had named his name on his Brother as ” Sahibzada Abdul Latif ” in token of his deed and his Effort to make “””Durand line””” ,  while he represented the Afghan Government in Durand line commission in 1898 .

These Mullahs were on pay role of British and they formed the Maliks and also the tehsildars and political Administration of KPK and FATA area and they made an Alliance towards not making FATA same as NWFP/KPK and demanded a separate Laws of FCR 40 and Lord Curzon Laws , currently under Article 247 of Pakistan 1973 Constitution.

Not much has changed even when the British Left and they Passed a Law called the Partition Act where all the Previous laws were null and Void and FATA even after Partition was kept the same when there was no Legal basis and First constitution of “”Liaqat ali Khan “””Objective Resolution “” had no Mention of FATA .

These Same traitors and British Chamchas  Bureaucrats of British era become the Presidents and Majority Muslim Leaguers under Jinnah and also the Generals in the Army and usurped power from the Politicians and they wanted to use the FATA for their”” Great Game Strategy””‘ and “””Strategic depth”””” after they formed Alliances with USA and NATO in Baghdad pact and they wanted dearly the Draconian Lord Curzon Laws and wanted to complete what that British had left incomplete because of two World wars and Lack of Army manpower after 1945 when WW2 Ended . They wanted Invasion of Afghanistan and Central Asia Dearly .

Generals Ayub Khan family being Son of a traitor of Soil  “””Mir Dad Khan Subedar””” of in Mardan Based Punjab regiment and Hudson Horse under col Hudson who was Killed by his Own sepoys for these Inhuman Atrocities in 1857 “”, who had had cut the Head of Last Muslim Emperor “””Bahudur Shah Zafar “”” and Hanged his 5 Sons in 1857 , was one Leading this and He implemented the martial law in Pakistan with help of his “”‘Qadiani Friends in Takht I Lahore”””” and hence , from 1958 , this Strategy was started and Nothing changed now the Kala Sahib was In charge after Gora Sahib Left .  The Qadiani Judges like Justice Munir Ahmad and Bureaucrats like Ch Zafar Ullah Khan and in Planning commission ” Grandson of  Qadiani Prophet “””Mirza Ghulam Ahmad”” “””Mian Muzafar Ahmad ( Planner of Kalabagh Dam ) was chief Planning commission head all  contributed in Supporting the Army Generals Ayub Khan and causing a Pause of Pakistan Democracy and Constitution called “” Nazria Zorat “”.

The Bureaucracy of Punjab and the Generals of Punjab wanted FATA for their Misadventures in Afghanistan and Central Asia and Americans were friend not Master rather the Opposite in this Gerat Game and FATA was the Launching Pad and Officer of Army were sent to USA to get Trained from Incompetent Generals who Passed Last on Merit in  “””PMA””” and were not fit for and Below Average officers like “”General Zia( failed his Staff college Quetta ) “”” (  to Hamid Gul to Mushraff and also other contributed who were never fit to be even a col in Pakistan Army on Merit .

FATA , was forcibly Made as what it is today , later some Areas of Pakhtunkhwa like , the following in 1971 , were made Part of FATA who were Never even in FATA under the British as the Kala Sahib were more active then the “”Gora Sahib””,  like “”””Bajaur Agency””” , “””Swat””” , and Malakand Agency and “””Upper Dir “””and””” Lower Dir””” , and “”Shangla””” etc was made into FATA , under Zulfiqar Ali bhutto and the Generals Yayha Khan “” after Protests Against one unit was made by Pashtun Politicians like Wali Khan of ANP and East Pakistani Politicians . The Assemblies of Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan were Dissolved and a Punjabi Rajput “””Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto””‘ son of British Chamcha,  “””Sir Shah Nawaz Khan “”” a Punjabi who was Given Land in Sind for his Service to British was part of this Scheme.

The East Pakistan 60% of Pakistan Broke away in Protest and Pashtun never did any Protest and Became””” Loyal Pakistanis””” serving under the Punjabi establishment Draconian Black Laws and in the forefront were the “””””Tribals  FATA Walas and their Political Agents and “””Maliks””” who were loyal to British found their other Pattern the Punjabis . The Punjabi Assumed the Position of God Like Causalities with FCR 40 and Article 247 , which was put in First even Democratic constitution of Pakistan in 1973.

The Maliks British Stooges and their son got the Position of 8 FATA senators and 12 MNA but no MPA, in Pakhtunkhwa to which they were Part of . This was a Mystery that is not Explainable on Basis of common Sense .

FEDERALLY ADMINISTERED TRIBAL AREAS BORDER AFGHANISTAN

Is FATA Part of Pakhtunkhwa Big Mystery : 


So it is Big Mystery that is FATA being so different from Pakhtunkwa and yet it is not a Province , But it is Governed as a Different as Different Province , according to the constitution of Pakistan and it is Governed by only one Article , Called 247 , which makes the Lord Curzons Black Laws “”” FCR 40″”” as Laws of Tribal Areas be it FATA or PATA and direct Rule of President of Pakistan , some of the Anomalies of this small Strip of Land which is on Durand line facing Afghanistan ,

It Makes one wonder why the “”Kala Sahib “”” , go to Extreme Lengths to make it without  certain Personal  Rights, Democracy and Right to Elect their Leaders  and Human Rights that is Guaranteed to other Pakistani and not Tribal people belonging to only one Ethnicity that is Pashtuns.

Why a Stick Policy is needed for One Race and not other Pakistani , why Punishment and not the Goodies or Carrots are Needed to Govern them . The British Have left but the Kala Sahib is still there and more Loyol as”””” Loyol Puris””” Punjabis  to Gora Sahib that want to maintain thier Union jack over FATA Tribal and Claims this is Wanted by them ???? as Lies Perpetuated by Pakistani Media and agents of Punjabi Establishment.

Role of Mass Media of Pakistan  FATA : 

They say it is their culture and Tradition to confuse the People of Pakistan and claim that ., Tribal are Donkeys “”” who need a Stick on their Back to Function Properly as they are Stupid and un Worthy of Being a Democratic traditions . Although Evidence is Other wise , Pakhtunkhwa by contrast Always Votes the Best as compared to Punjabis who jimps over boad and selects the generals in Uniform and also thier Army Selected Poltiicains as thier favorites Mostly punjabis and Muhajirs offocourse .


No Jurisdiction of Parliament and Pakistan Secretariat in FATA  : 


The Pakistan Constitution and National Assembly has no Jurisdiction in FATA , that is under Direct Federal Rule of Islamabad and is controlled by the President of Pakistan and the FATA secretariat which is not under Pakistan Secretariat that controls Pakistan.

No Jurisdiction of Pakhtunkhwa Parliament and its Secretariat in FATA  : 


The Pakhtunkhwa parliament and Pakhtunkhwa Secretariat does not control FATA and its Laws and it is controlled Directly by the FATA Secretariat under President  of Pakistan .


No Jurisdiction of Supreme court in FATA : 


There is no Jurisdiction of Supreme court and High court of Pakthunkhwa in FATA , as it is termed as FATA Federal Jurisdiction Area under Islamabad by Pakistan constitution under Article 247 and it is not governed by the National and Provincial Assembly and hence , the Governance is controlled b Article 247 , just one Point Agenda of Pakistan Constitution and it says that FCR 40 ,which are 40 Laws that Govern the Justice and Law system of FATA



No Jurisdiction of Peshawar high court in FATA 


 Even when FATA is considered as Part of Pakhtunkhwa or not is a mystery for all Practical Purposes that , Peshawar high court has no Jurisdiction in FATA and recently Passed Changed in Article 247 sub Section ( 6) , only Says now that , FATA people have Right to challenge the Authority of Political Agents of FATA secretariat in Islamabad under the  President of Pakistan under a Tribunal constituted by Retired or Serving Judges or Peshawar High court but will work under the Rules of Article 247 and FCR 40 . common on this is another Joke on people of FATA . what is use of Such Rubbish Amendment in first place when , other 300 to 500 Article of constitution are not implemented in FATA . The Punjabi Establishment  will continue to remain the God like in FATA as matter of current laws are concerned and they will continue to Play the Games .


No Jurisdiction of Islamabad high court in FATA 


Recently when Islamabad High court came into being , which has Jurisdiction in Federal controlled Areas ,  7 FATA Agencies and 6 FR Areas were conveniently left out and this happened, and later when even an Amendment took place that allowed appeal process after Political Agent makes a Decision under the Article 247 and FCR 40 He cannot be challenged in the Islamabad High court although Peshawar high court can theoretically but not according to constitution of Pakistan but in Limited way only it can look into the 40 Laws which are called the FCR 40 and under Article just one Article of Constitution that is called Article 247 . A joke was Played with FATA People and they were Given the Feeler they are Slaves and will be treated like the Slaves in future  as well .


When  No Jurisdiction of NAB in FATA 


It is so Curious that , FATA which is controlled by the Bureaucrats is Home of highest corruption in Pakistan , yet when it comes to Implementation of Nab FATA , exempted because of two simple reason that , NAB is only Used for Political Victimization of Politicians and since the FATA is directly controlled by the Punjabi Establishment via the Corrupt FATA secretariat and its Predominate Punjabi Bureaucracy and Political Agents who are Direct rulers of FATA and with Fascists God Like Authority and as the Powerfull Arms of Punjabi Establishment .


It is strange that , NAB and Ehtesab Bureau has not caught a Single Person from FATA for Corruption and its Rulers who are just Figures heads and Dummies like 8 Senators and 12 MNA of FATA and countless Local People who work for FATA secretariat are never probed by the NAB , National Accountability Bureu and since 1947 , less then 2 % of What was Allocated budgets is actually Applied to the Projects which exists on the record , rest of 98% goes to Pockets of Punjab Federal Secretariat and the President of Pakistan  and also the , Punjabi Secretaries of Islamabad and Also the bureaucracy of Pakhtunkhwa are although not directly involved only the Political Agents and Tehsildars low grade officers Muhrars and also lower grade class 4 employees are all billionaires in rack in corruption which is Highest in Pakistan and world even for the record


No Jurisdiction of Ehtesab Bureau in FATA 


As mentioned Above Ehtesab Bureau is Provincial Department and not a Federal Entity like the NAB , so FATA is not Part of Pakhtunkhwa and it has 8 Senators and also 12 MNA and No MPA that sits in the Pakhtunkhwa Assembly hence it is a Separate Province technically but in the Constitution of Pakistan it is not Given any Legal Status and No laws of Pakhtunkhwa or either of its Department has any Relationship with FATA and so is the Ehtesab Bureau of Pakhtunkhwa .

Safron Ministry or Department of Aliens ( Not Outer Space Aliens ) or Illaqa Ghair 


I though the the whole day and could not figure what the hell this ministry was and although this ministry exists and it controls the area of Pakhtunkhwa which are under direct control of federation the 6 Fr areas in Pakhtunkhwa and others in Baluchistan . As well as 7 Agencies of FATA areas , and it is only Ministry in Pakistan that can be called the Illegal or Rogue Ministry as it is not under the control of Pakistan constitution and it is Governed by only one Article that is Article 247 as it has no relationship with rest of Pakistan and it can be called “”Illaq Ghair “”, “” The Others area / Aliens “”, Ministry and it is although under control of Interior Ministry and yet it is a Ministry in its own right and it no Part of Pakistan constitution applies to it and it a Government within a Government and it control’s the following areas 


1. FATA

2. FR areas

3. FANA ( Gilgat and Baltistan known as Federally administered Northern Areas )

SOURCE  http://alijakhan.blogspot.com/2015/10/understanding-fata-status-and-governance.html

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A: Tribal Areas and Constitution of Pakistan:

Article 246 and Article 247 define the Tribal areas of Pakistan and they are divided into 4 types of Tribal areas which are as Follows

  1. FATA  ( Federally Administered Tribal Areas) Agencies, Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orazkzai, Kurrum, North Waziristan, South Waziristan,
  2. FR,s ( Frontier Regions ) Fr Peshawar , Fr Kohat, Fr Bannu , Fr Lakki, and Fr Di-khan districts
  3. PATA (provincially Administered Tribal Areas) Swat, Dir Upper, Dir Lower, Buner, Shangla and Malakand Districts.
  4. FANA ( Federally Administered Northern Areas ) Gilgit and Baltistan

Although they are part of Pakistan according to Article 1 of Pakistan 1973 constitution that defines Pakistan territories, but are governed very differently and actually Governed as British Viceroy did by force and inhuman and Degrading Laws called FCR the “Frontier Crimes regulation” that are implemented via Article 247 . British Governed Pashtuns and Baluchistan this way since1893 after Durand line formation. These laws allows for inhuman and Degrading Laws called FCR40 , that allows for collective Punishment of whole villages and towns .

These Laws were kept by Pakistan since 1947 although no one wanted them and Tribal’s were never even Asked about it in 1947 when FATA and Pakhtunkhwa (NWFP) joined the Federation of Pakistan in a Referendum that Just Asked one Question, Do you want to join Pakistan or India, although Geographically FATA and Pakhtunkhwa was Near Afghanistan and this Question was avoided in referendum Tactfully.

Legitimacy of Durand line was accepted without Pashtuns Consultation, although the partition act of India had made the All the Agreement between the Viceroy / East India Company redundant, Mysteriously Durand Line Agreement was kept Intact when Pakistan was carved out of India by British via Partition act.

West of Durand Line in Afghanistan East of Durand Line nobody was asked anything and East of Durand line, what is now Pakhtunkhwa, FATA, FANA and Baluchistan nobody was asked anything and Elected and Sitting Assembly of Pakhtunkhwa was never consulted in 1947 and Political People were sidelined by British knowingly.

B: Why Pashtuns only Targeted for these Inhuman Laws ?:

British viceroy made some special laws for These Tribal areas , in order to suppress and subjugate the Pashtuns these laws were draconian and inhuman and oppressive and Violated every aspect of human rights that British themselves believed in and Imagine British had a Parliament in Britain 1893 as well in 1947 at that time and they oversaw the East India company and yet they believed in Oppression and brutality as Punishment for Pashtuns resistance to their Designs of Domination of Central Asia .

British wanted Punish and Suppress the Rag tag and poor Pashtuns although who had been ruler of India for last 1000 year’s since Alaptagin and Subtagin  and then Mehmood Ghaznavi and Ghori who came from Afghanistan after 800 AD just when Islam was Rising in Arabia after 700 AD , and it has Reached Samarkand and Bukhara which were Part of Afghanistan at that time and later separated in Panjdeh , wars by Czarist Russians when Pashtuns were becoming Weekend and Unable to Defend India and Afghanistan, because of Infighting and Power struggle between themselves and also the Tajiks Mughals and Hazaras.

Afghans and Pashtuns  Gave culture and Religion to India from , and this was the Main reason for the brutality that the British wanted Suppression of only the Pashtuns whom they thought were the Only ones to challenge them .

The Punjabis had joined the British as Sepoys in British Army and Bengalis had as well after fall of Tipu Sultan, they were providing the back Bone of British army as Bengalis Sappers, and Punjab Piffers.

They were fear full of Pashtuns who were the real challengers of British and they knew Pashtuns have always provided leadership to India and they knew they were their real challengers.

In All of Indian subcontinent.  Which was included current Afghanistan. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, only Pashtuns had always ruled and provided real challenge.

British has been Using  Punjabi Sikhs and Muslim as most loyal , Loyal puris ( Faisalabad ) as they used to call them and Especially their Ruler Ranjeet Singh , which they Created from a Governor of Punjab under Durrani kings Timur shah and his son Zaman shah ,

British  Provided Punjabis with British money , Military  technology , Training and even supplied the Ranjeet Sigh with European Officers and even 12 European Generals to make his Army Trained and Strong to Fight the Wars at North Western Fronts at Lands of Pashtuns with Pashtuns.

The tiny country of Britain had become lucky when they Got Loyal Puris or Punjabis as they called them a Natural mercenary and Militant Nation.

The British Army under East India company were using the Biharis and Bengali for their sepoys and they used to call them Bengal regiments.

Punjabi was now serving them in their Army as soldiers against the Pashtuns with Gora officers in command. This was their luck they would tax the people and take their money and then use the same money to buy the soldier from Punjab and Bengal.

In-fact the British had conquered the whole of India without a proper fight apart of Tipu sultan a man of Pashtun descent who ruled Bihar.

Bahudur Shah Zafar and Mughals were Lame and lazy and they had no kept a proper Army even , and King was only Interested in Poetry and Wine. It was the Pashtuns who considered Mughals as Muslims and helped them keep the crown for last 100 yeaar from 1757-1857, as Ahmad Shah Abdalis help made them as this .

Afghanis always used to have their Army from Pashtun belt of now Pakhtunkhwa + FATA and Baluchistan for their adventures into India and this was ascertained as Fact by British.

So they devised a scheme of suppressing the Pashtuns, by use of FCR and its 40 Rules called FCR40. The Pashtuns and Baluchis were Punished for Resisting British and Punjabis , Bengali Biharis were Rewarded for their Loyalty to British. FCR is known as “Frontier crimes Regulations”, this Law comprises of 40 Laws that calls for Collective Punishment and Destroying homes and Villages in bulk if just one Person commits Crime in Tribal Area.

 C:  Why Pakistan Adopted the Policies of British East India company?:

This Laws enables Jailing and Hanging a Person for any Crime on Earth that he has committed, if the Political Agent (The rep of Viceroy of East India company that Still Exists in FATA even Today under a controversial legal cover of Article 247) wants he can do that, after Pakistan was made carrying this system without any consent was both criminal and speaks volumes of Intention of Pakistan to Treat Pashtuns with same Stick as Viceroy and East India company Treated them.

In fact the tribal Pashtuns are even Slaves even Today and People as Joke call the FATA as “Maqboza Qabilistan “, which mean that Tribal’s are under Siege of British even Today, the Gora Sahib Left but the Kala Shaib of Punjab (Federal Government of Pakistan which is run by Punjabis as they claim they are 70% of Pakistan) still treats them with contempt and Hate and use Similar Tactics as British on Pashtuns.

D: How FCR was removed from Pakhtunkhwa:

The Pakhtunkhwa  /NWFP, Baluchistan and Gilgit Touching Durand Line Just Like FATA was Also  under FCR after 1893 , but when the World war 2 Approached, then British held the Round  table conference and they called reps from allover India.

From Pakhtunkhwa Brother of Bacha khan Dr Khan sahib who was the First FRCS of India as Doctor as well, he was the First CM of Pakhtunkhwa who had defeated the British Protégé and their Civil Servant Sahibzada Abdul Qayum khan (Role in Durand Line Formation as Representative of British in 1893) of Topi Swabi, who was a British Agent with no confidence motion to become the First CM of Pakhtunkhwa.

Dr khan sahib had the full backing of Pashtun democratic forces in form of Bacha khans Awami National Party called National Awami Party called NAP at that time now known as Awami National Party, he demanded Removal of FCR and lord Curzon laws and hence from Pakhtunkhwa the British Reluctantly removed FCR and Tribal status from Pakhtunkhwa but they cunningly kept the FATA, FR, PATA regions under FCR40 laws.

This limited democracy was allowed only because of pressure of Bacha khan and Pashtuns, and because of weakness of British army to contain them in 2nd world war, otherwise there intentions was to keep Pashtuns forever under these draconian laws, Pakistan government follower lord Curzon policies and they till day keep on doing it now on one pretext or another.

So as Baluchistan (Kalat State it Old name before 1971) was also part of Pakhtunkhwa as it was equidistant from Durand Line in 1893 and it touched Durand line, So When FCR was Lifted from Pakhtunkhwa after Round Table conference 1935, it was lifted from Baluchistan as well. But some areas of Baluchistan are still under FCR like Dera bugti area.

 E: Why Pakistan is sticking to Lord Curzon Degrading Laws as Article 246, 247 and FCR 40 ?:

The Pakistanis are using false assumptions the British Created , that Tribal’s don’t want democracy or this system because of Tribal culture , which was a Lie , as Pashtuns had been giving systems of Equality and Government based on Islam , or other religions to India for Generations .

Currently Pakistan is saying the same things while, not teaching the real history in schools and misinforming the public about the Real History of Pashtuns.

They are now making a lame excuse that “It is Tribal culture”, well this is joke of highest order as How can FCR40 allowing degrading and inhuman atrocities that Israel cannot even think to commit, is allowed under a legal law in Tribal areas.

How can FCR40 that allows collective punishments be a culture of Pashtuns, how barbaric it is that whole Tribe is punished for crime for 1 man?

How inhuman and degrading it is that one is allowed to be kicked out of Agency for not obeying a Political agent a civil servant of Government of Pakistan who can be a most corrupt man as most of Political Agent seats are sold , How cruelty is legalized by Pakistan in this civil world .

It is amazing this law was never challenged by supreme court even when it is against Basic Human Rights and all the Fundamental Human Rights Articles and laws of constitution that allows Human Rights violations, supreme court can do that but it avoids this issues as it is run from, behind the scenes by Punjabi establishment who pick and chooses the judges based on their loyalty to Punjabi establishment.

They degradation and insult never stops here the political agent who represent the federal Government also does not make CNIC or other Documents like Passport or even register them for votes if he want to of  Tribal’s who are not in their Good Books .

only Respite for Tribal’s is when they Migrate to Areas like Nearby Pakhtunkhwa or Karachi or Punjab like Rawalpindi or Islamabad where they make new CNIC or Proclaiming that they are not from Tribal areas .

This changes their world now they are free citizens and are able to vote or stand in elections, although they will keep the shinwari, Afridi, mohmand, Bangash, Turi, Wazir in their names as tell tale of their origins as Tribal’s .but their status from “slave” is changed to a free man.

They can now own property, Travel abroad, send their children to school and don’t worry about Political agents a, Tehsildars or FC knocking on their roads and taking them to lock ups or jail without a Trial or Appeal even, or destroying their homes.

They are happy in this new world and rarely would talk about their dark world of Tribal areas oppressed legally by Government under Article 247, 246, that makes them legal slaves under all powerful corrupt civil servant Political agent, they would never dare to say anything in the free world of settled areas as they are afraid of Political agent even in settled area guess why? ,

Just because FCR40 is implemented on them in settled areas / Non Tribal area of Rest of Pakistan Legally makes them slaves of Political Agent and Federal Government even in those Areas where Article 247,246 is not implemented.

Why such slaves or “Maqboza Qabilistan”,  Tribal’s, are being forcibly ruled like Lord Curzon did by Pakistan and wool is woven over eyes of people and why Oppression is a Policy of Pakistan for Pashtuns ? is beyond comprehension and degrading.

F: Confused Rule in 6FR Area and FATA  :

  1. In FATA

There are 7 Agencies (North to South are Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai, Kurrum, North Waziristan and South Waziristan Agencies), Although FATA is ruled by a Political Agent or the FATA Secretariat found in Islamabad.  , along with 2 APA, s (Assistant Political Agents )  and Each APA has 2 Tehsildars , who reports Directly to President of Pakistan via Governor Pakhtunkhwa Although Governor has no real Powers, he is ceremonial head only. Supreme court Law does not work here and so is Pakistani Laws and it was reason for rise of Taliban here.

  1. In FR Area

There are 6 FR,s (North to South are FR Peshawar , Kohat , Orakzai , Bannu , Lakki and DI Khan  Frontier Regions or FR,s ) Although FATA is ruled by a Political Agent, FR Has completely Different system it has no System at All , or FATA Secretariat to control it . There and no one Rules in it it is dream of No Man land and Paradise for criminals, It is devoid of any Administration. No Political Agent or Tehsildars or Anybody it is Just ruled by order of Adjacent Tehsil DCO , or District coordination officer from Pakhtunkhwa ,  Which is big Anomaly that a Territory under Federal Government is run by a Provincial Government Rep DCO. Although All the 6 FR are found inside of Pakhtunkhwa Border Area un like the FATA which has a border with Pakhtunkhwa. The FR has a own Minister in Federation even called as Minister of Federal Regions , while it is totally devoid of any federal control which is Funny and a Anomaly. Supreme Court Law does not work here and so is Pakistani Laws and it was reason for rise of Taliban here.

3.  In PATA

There are 5 PATA (Swat, Dir Upper, Dir Lower, Buner, Shangla and Malakand Districts. ) Although PATA is not ruled,  by a Political Agents, and the FATA Secretariat.  PATA  has almost same system as FATA but there is a twist that a MPA , or member sits in Provincial Assembly of Pakhtunkhwa. So in Total confusion the Article 247 works here and FCR is used by DCO,s under Provincial Government to Punish collectively the whole Villages for crimes of 1 person, no Law passed in Pakhtunkhwa Assembly can work here if not counter signed by President of Pakistan.

  1. In FANA

There are 5 FANA , Federally Administered Northern Areas(Swat, Dir Upper, Dir Lower, Buner, Shangla and Malakand Districts. ) Although FANA is not ruled by a Political Agents, and the FATA Secretariat.  FANA has almost same system as FATA but there is a twist that a FANA or Gilgit Baltistan Assembly has been Raised and it now function while being totally powerless.   MPA, or member sits in Provincial Assembly of FANA (Gilgit Baltistan) .  So in Total confusion the Article 247 works here and FCR is used by DCO,s under Provincial Government to Punish collectively the whole Villages for crimes of 1 person, no Law passed in FANA ( Gilgit Baltistan ) can work here if not counter signed by President of Pakistan. Supreme Court Law does not work here. The New Provincial Assembly is a total Joke and it is not ratified by any constitutional Amendment and it can’t be even called a Provincial Assembly. Traditionally it was part of Pakhtunkhwa and under Governor Pakhtunkhwa but now it mess of governance as it is not  a province ( No amendment in constitution and it is Artificially being called part of Kashmir although it was Liberated in 1948 by its own people and they never were Part of Kashmir in Past)

 G: Article 246,247 and FCR40 is keeping Tribal’s Backwards:

This System of legal Oppression is keeping the Tribal’s backward and Non-Progressive Because Bureaucrats Political Agents who Buy the Seats of power so that they can Have Part in thriving smuggling and Other Illegal Activities, Militarism/Talibanisation, that run with Blessing of Pakistani Government and also the Strategic depth and other schemes of “Get Rich soon” , that are done using the tribal’s as Labor .

As this Policy allowed not a Single University in FATA, for Last 70 Years in 7 Agencies of FATA, and 6 FR  areas , which are under federal Government although FR Areas are found inside of Pakhtunkhwa Borders , this Makes a very Interesting spectacle as FR Areas people are very confused because the invisible Border of 6 FR areas clearly demarcates the haves and have not’s .

Tribal’s are confused and Bewildered that while a Neighbor who Happens to be in Settled Areas (Outside of Article 247 in Pakhtunkhwa) , has all the Amenities and Facilities and he while  a few feet away has nothing No Gas in Pipelines , No Electricity for 20 Hours a Day ( As tribal’s don’t pay Electricity Bill by an Unwritten code of conduct between Political Agents and tribal’s ) , No Schools or University for last 70 Years but his neighbors in Pakhtunkhwa has everything .

This creates a friction and Jealousy between a Tribal and Pashtun of Pakhtunkhwa  that is difficult to explain to “Illiterate and Jahil”  Tribal’s who education is Zero and he known nothing of Lord Curzon ,  East India company or Article 247,246 and FCR40, he cares less he wants these things for himself and his elected members also cant do anything for him.

He think he is being ruled by law of Kafirs ( Un Believers)  , as Sufi Muhammad belonging to Tribal Area of PATA in Swat said famously , his son in law Mullah Fazlulaah , said that “ Tribal Laws of FCR40 and Article 247 is law of Non-Muslims and he wowed to wage Jihad struggle for Oppressed against the Pakistan Government .

He was not far from Truth , this is law of Oppression and a Military Action was Started in tribal Areas and PATA , Pakistan Army quelled the Uprising but nothing was done to remove Article 247.

H:  Why Not removal of Article 246,247 and FCR40 Why only Amendment:

Presently there is a bill in National Assembly in Year 2014 , of Pakistan presented by Mr. Farhat Ullah Babar of PPP Pakistan Peoples Party about FATA  that Article 247 should be Amended , but seriously the Part about Abolishment of Article 247 is not Discussed at all , even after Instructions of Supreme court of Pakistan has been Passed to Amend FCR40 Laws that are provided Legal cover under Article 247 of constitution.

In Last government when the 18th Amendment Bills was presented and it was ANP, Awami National party that wanted to Abolish the Article 247 , it was 8 Senators and 12 MNA elected from FATA that caused Obstruction of Abolishment of this law .

It was no Surprise as Most of those so called Senators and MNA all buy out the elections via Money and most of them are Drug Smugglers and Smugglers of Goods from Karachi Port to Durand line in grab of Afghan transit trade and then use these Good meant duty free for Afghanistan to be sold in Pakistan in Bara or Karkhano Markets that are Opened in FATA near border with Pakhtunkhwa.  They fear that their Smuggling will stop when Article 247 will be abolished.

They wanted to keep the tribal’s as Backward and only are interested in their illegal trade and Money making. Most of them are War lords and Drug Lords.

Second biggest Opponents of Article 247 are the Mullahcracy and they have vested interest in FATA , that they want to use FATA as Launching pad for their , Taliban for their Money making Schemes of Invasion of Kashmir,  Afghanistan and Iran .

USA offered Industrial zone with free Access to USA for Good that were either assembled or Made here and tax free status, yet Pakistan Government never was interested in this scheme and they sabotaged it from the Beginning.

Then Pakistani Establishment Put a Spanner in Abolishment of Article 247 and stopped the 18th Amendment was done none other the Army chief who stopped it, All the Right Wing Parties especially the Mullahcracy like Jamaat Islami (Who, s role in Rapes and Murder of East Pakistan is no Secret) , PTI and PMLN all want to play its Part in not Allowing the tribal Status to be changed .

They want the Hand of Punjabi Establishment to be Strong over FATA, and tribal’s and rule them like Lord Curzon and degrade and humiliate them.

I :  Stake of Punjabis in Not removal of Article 246,247 and FCR40:

Punjabi don’t want removal of Article 247 who rule Pakistan Politically as well more strongly Via the Army and Establishment and capture almost 70- 90% of Power seats in there . They don’t previously divided the Pashtuns by separating them into Baluchistan in 1971, after one unit and put them under this Tag although Majority Population of Baluchistan are Pashtuns and not Baluchis .

They chalked the border in such a way that Pashtun would be a Minority even in Pakhtunkhwa and also , they put half of their Population in Baluchistan ( Previously Kalat State ) , and half them in Pakhtunkhwa and FATA , FANA even.

Why so much Division was it Divide and rule of British that was Adopted as a Policy? , yes it was Political Power of Pashtuns was Degraded and that was reason to Maintain the Status quo of FATA , where 15% of Pakistan Population Lives ( No consensus of Population Exists even after 70 year since 1947 ) and Pakhtunkhwa another 15% Pashtun Lives.

In Baluchistan another 10% Pashtuns live  ( No consensus of Population Exists even after 70 years since 1947 ), and if you add all this up it comes to about 40% of Pakistan Population challenging the Majority status of Punjabis if you add the 10% Population of Pakistan as Pashtuns that Lives in Karachi , and another 10% in Sairiki Area of DG Khan , Mianwali and Multan making them 60% of Pakistan.

Punjabi were never majority in Pakistan and by Artificially Adding Sairiki and Pashtuns from Pakhtunkhwa area , the majority of Pashtuns were Diminished by a clever Plan.

Conclusion

There is No way that , Article 247 or FCR40 will be Abolished ever by Pakistan and it will be Kept as long as Pakistan does not stop using the tribal’s Pashtuns as Fodder for Military Incursions and War into Afghanistan , Kashmir and Iran in Future. The Only way to stop is starting with Abolishing Article 247 and FCR40 .

 

 

 

 

 

 

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“We have men and we have gold and treasure and sacred land in plenty, we have everything.”
—Dost Mohammad Khan Durrani Barakzai King of India and Afghanistan  to John Lawrence.

Famous Quotation of Amir Dost Muhmmad Khan of Afghanistan Durrani ( Royals Kings of Kings as Durrani is known ) to  John Lawrence Brother of Irishman Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence KCB (28 June 1806 – 4 July 1857) ( Man who made Law Lawrence College Ghora Galli Muree /Hazara) was a British soldier and statesman in India, who died In 1857 Mutiny defending Lucknow.

Amir Dost Muhammad Khan King of India and Afghanistan Till He lost it to British and his Partner Ranjit Singh .

Amir Dost Muhammad Khan King of India and Afghanistan Till He lost it to British and his Partner Ranjit Singh .

Background and rise to power : 

Dost Mohammad Khan (Pashto: دوست محمد خان, December 23, 1793 – June 9, 1863) was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty of Durrani Abdali Pashtun Kings of Afghanistan and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War.[1] With the decline of the Durrani dynasty, he became Emir of Afghanistan from 1826 to 1839 and then from 1845 to 1863. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the 11th son of Sardar Payendah Khan (chief of the Barakzai tribe) who was killed in 1799 by Zaman Shah Durrani.[2] Dost Mohammad’s grandfather was Hajji Jamal Khan.

The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak) ruled Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the Durani Saudizai   monarchy who were rulling the Indian part finally Wanned and was Week under Mohammad Zahir Shah and Ayub Shah . so the Afghan part of Durrani the Barrackzai  came to rescue .

The  Durrani Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. During this era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, and Russia in the north. There were also many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan Wars and the 1929 civil war.

The Durrnai Barakzai dynasty was the line of rulers in Afghanistan in the 19th and 20th centuries. Following the fall of the Durrani Saudozia Empire in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Durrani Founder King Ahmed Shah Durrani’s Afghan Empire as various sons of Timur Shah struggled for supremacy.

Because of this Sad state of Inernal Rivalry ,The Afghan Empire ceased to exist as a single nation state, disintegrating for a brief time into a fragmented collection of small units. Dost Mohammad Khan gained preeminence in 1826 and founded the Barakzai dynasty in about 1837.

Thereafter, his descendants ruled in direct succession until 1929, when King Amanullah Khan abdicated and his cousin Mohammed Nadir Shah was elected king. The most prominent & powerful sub-clan of the Barakzai Pashtun tribe is the Mohamedzai clan, of which the 1826-1978 Afghanistan ruling dynasty comes from.[2]

According to Hyat Khan’s history of Afghanistan, from their progenitor Bor Tareen, otherwise known as Abdal, are descended two main divisions: the Zirak and the Panjpai. The term Abdal, however, gradually superseded Bor Tareen and came into special prominence when Ahmad Shah Abdali, commonly known as Durrani, began his career of conquest.

The Achakzi were once a branch of the large Barakzai tribe, but Ahmad Shah Durrani was worried over this large tribe as potential competition for control of Kabul’s throne and split the tribe into two separate components and since then the Achakzi have remained distinct and are a separate tribe today. Their original homeland was Maruf District, Kandahar Province.[3][4] [5]

Bārakzai (Pashto: بارکزی ‎ barakzay, plur. BĀRAKZĪ; Urdu: برکزئی‎) is a common ethnic name among the Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan, meaning “son of Barak” in the Pashto language. Barakzai may also be the name of a Baloch tribe in Iran. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zīrak branch of the Abdal Tareen, Bor Tareen, Tareen. The Durrani is being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people.[1]

Durrani King Dost Mohammed Khan (1793-1863), a member of the Barakzai dynasty, was Amir of Afghanistan and India with his sphere of Influence extending to Delhi and Lahore Seat of  Power of India till it was lost after Durrani Line and 2 Anglo Afghan war of 1838 and 1878 and the Anglo Sikh Wars which were Initiated by Ranjeet Singh and his 11 European generals and Financed by East India Company .

Durrani Wanning Empire because of Great Game : 

He was Vicitm of Great Game and lost his Vast Empire of India and some Part of Afghanistan because of Moves of British East india company and Russian who Encroached on his Territory from 1826 to 1839.

Interestingly his Royal Durrani had Gained india after Ahmad Shah Abdali had Captured India after Pani Pat Wars and it was then Pashtun who were at time of mughal restricted to Afghanistan again Re-asserted their Claim on Indian after 1757 , when Mughals had lost thier Might and Power and East india Company / Briitsh had taken thier Strong Hold near the Indian Ocean Coastal Areas of Bihar and Bangladesh Areas where Afghan Muslim Tipu Sultan/ Amir Hyder  had his domain that was Shattered because of Mir jaffer Treachery and British Clever and Cunning Politics .

His Area of India including Punjab and later NWFP , Baluchistan and Afghanistan ’s position between the Russian Empire and India meant that the British East India Company was anxious to ensure that a pro-British Amir was on the throne at Kabul. But they could not Succeed

Dost Mohammad Khan was born to an influential family on 23 December 1793 in Kandahar, Afghanistan.[3] His father, Payandah Khan, was chief of the Barakzai tribe and a civil servant in the Durrani dynasty.

They trace their family tree to Abdal (the first and founder of the Abdali tribe), through Hajji Jamal Khan, Yousef, Yaru, Mohammad, Omar Khan, Khisar Khan, Ismail, Nek, Daru, Saifal, and Barak. Abdal had Four sons, Popal, Barak, Achak, and Alako.[4] Dost Mohmmad Khan’s mother is believed to have been a Shia from the Persian Qizilbash group.[2]

His elder brother, the chief of the Barakzai, Fatteh Khan, took an important part in raising Mahmud Shah Durrani to the sovereignty of Afghanistan in 1800 and in restoring him to the throne in 1809. Dost Mohammad accompanied his elder brother and then Prime Minister of Kabul Wazir Fateh Khan to the Battle of Attock against the invading Sikhs. Mahmud Shah repaid Fatteh Khan’s services by having him assassinated in 1818, thus incurring the enmity of his tribe. After a bloody conflict, Mahmud Shah was deprived of all his possessions but Herat, the rest of his dominions being divided among Fatteh Khan’s brothers. Of these, Dost Mohammad received Ghazni, to which in 1826 he added Kabul, the richest of the Afghan provinces.

From the commencement of his reign he found himself involved in disputes with Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab region, who used the dethroned Sadozai prince, Shah Shujah Durrani, as his instrument. In 1834 Shah Shujah made a last attempt to recover his kingdom. He was defeated by Dost Mohammad Khan under the walls of Kandahar, but Ranjit Singh seized the opportunity to annex Peshawar. Dost Mohammad sent his son Akbar Khan to defeat the Sikhs at the Battle of Jamrud in 1837.[3] The recovery of the Jamrud Fort became the Afghan amir’s great concern.

European influence in Afghanistan

Rejecting overtures from Russia, he endeavoured to form an alliance with Great Britain, and welcomed Alexander Burnes to Kabul in 1837. Burnes, however, was unable to prevail on the governor-general, Lord Auckland, to respond to the amir’s advances. Dost Mohammad was enjoined to abandon the attempt to recover Peshawar, and to place his foreign policy under British guidance. He replied by renewing his relations with Russia, and in 1838 Lord Auckland set the British troops in motion against him.

Fearful of a Russian invasion of India via Afghanistan, in 1837 the British sent an envoy,Alexander Burnes to Kabul in 1837. to Kabul to gain his support. Dost Mohammad was in favour of an alliance, but when the British refused to help him regain Peshawar, which the Sikhs had seized in 1834, he prepared to talk to the Russians, who sent an envoy to Kabul.

This led Lord Auckland, the Governor-General of India, to conclude that Dost Mohammad was anti-British. The decision was taken to replace him as Amir with a former ruler, Shah Shujah.

In March 1839 the British forces under Willoughby Cotton advanced through the Bolan Pass, and on April 26 it reached Kandahar. On 7 August 1839, Shah Shujah was proclaimed Amir of Afghanistan, while Dost Mohammad sought refuge in the wilds of the Hindu Kush. For some time he sought refuge with an influential local resistance leader, Mir Masjidi Khan. Closely followed by the British, Dost Mohammad was driven to extremities, and on 4 November 1840, surrendered as a prisoner. He remained in captivity during the British occupation, the Massacre of Elphinstone’s army in January 1842 and until the recapture of Kabul in the autumn of 1842.

In March 1839 a British force advanced through the Bolan Pass, and on 26 April reached Kandahar. Shah Shujah a Non Pashtun was proclaimed ruler.

Briitsh entered Kabul on 7 August, while Dost Mohammad sought refuge in the Hindu Kush. The British eventually caught him on 4 November 1840. He remained in captivity during their occupation and the disastrous retreat from Kabul in January 1842.

Following the British Massacre in First Afghan war of 1838-42 recapture of Kabul By Shah Sons and Afghan in the autumn of 1842, Dost Mohamed was restored to the throne, the unpopular Shah Shujah having been murdered by the Brave Afghans

Amir Dost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan with his son in Court

The British East Indian Company decided that occupying the country would cost too much in men and money and withdrew. Dost Mohamed reigned until his death in 1863. With some exceptions, his relationship with British India was friendly, and from 1855 regulated by treaty.

He was then set at liberty, in consequence of the resolve of the British government to abandon the attempt to intervene in the internal politics of Afghanistan. On his return from British India, Dost Mohammad was received in triumph at Kabul, and set himself to re-establish his authority on a firm basis.From 1846 he renewed his policy of hostility to the British and allied himself with the Punjabi Sikhs.

However, after the defeat of his allies at Gujrat on 21 February 1849, he abandoned his designs and led his troops back into Afghanistan. In 1850 he conquered Balkh, and in 1854 he acquired control over the southern Afghan tribes by the capture of Kandahar.

On 30 March 1855, Dost Mohammad reversed his former policy by concluding an offensive and defensive alliance with the British government, signed by Sir Henry Lawrence, Chief Commissioner of the Punjab, first proposed by Herbert Edwardes.[5]

The Family Tree of Dost Muhammad Khan in Linege of Royal Durrani Empire Indo Afghan Kings 1757-1980.

The Family Tree of Dost Muhammad Khan in Linege of Royal Durrani Empire Indo Afghan Kings 1757-1980.

In 1857 he declared war on Persia in conjunction with the British, and in July a treaty was concluded by which the province of Herat was placed under a Barakzai prince.

During the Indian Mutiny, of 1857 Dost Mohammad refrained from assisting the insurgents. His later years were disturbed by troubles at Herat and in Bukhara.

These he composed for a time, but in 1862 a Persian army, acting in concert with Ahmad Khan, advanced against Herat. The old amir called the British to his aid, and, putting himself at the head of his warriors, drove the enemy from his frontiers.

On 26 May 1863 he re-captured Herat, but on the 9th of June he died suddenly in the midst of victory, Mysteriously  after playing a great role in the history of South and Central Asia for forty years. He named as his successor his son, Amir  Sher Ali Khan.

Amir Dost Muhammad Khan Painting by East India Company Painter

Amir Dost Muhammad Khan Painting by East India Company Painter

Famous Paintings of last King of India and Afghanistan Amir Dost Muhammad Khan

This is lithograph is taken from plate 2 of ‘Afghaunistan’ by Lieutenant James Rattray.

Rattray was in the Bengal Army and took part in the first Afghan War, from 1839 to 1842. This conflict saw Dost Mohammed deposed as Emir of Afghanistan. Rattray was granted an audience with the Emir in Peshawar in January 1841. At this time, Dost Mohammed was a prisoner of state and on his way to exile in Calcutta.

Rattray was struck by the Emir’s deep voice, open manner and intelligent countenance, and by his followers with their finely chiselled features and tall, handsome figures.

The young boy with his head shaven in the manner “peculiar to the rosy-cheeked children of Caubul” was the Emir’s son from his youngest wife. Rattray wrote that since Dost Mohammed had been “a ruler just and merciful and attentive to affairs of state … the population of Peshawur considered him to be most unjustly treated by us.” The decorations of this apartment were a facsimile of the Emir’s former audience hall in the citadel of Ghazni.

 

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The Great Game was a term for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. A less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. In the post-Second World War post-colonial period, the term has continued in use to describe the geopolitical machinations of the Great Powers and regional powers as they vie for geopolitical power and influence in the area.

The term “The Great Game” is usually attributed to Arthur Conolly (1807–1842), an intelligence officer of the British East India Company’s Sixth Bengal Light Cavalry. It was introduced into mainstream consciousness by British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel Kim (1901).

Afghan King Amir sher Ali Pulled in Two Directions by Russian Bear and British Lion In Great Game

Afghan King Amir sher Ali Pulled in Two Directions by Russian Bear and British Lion In Great Game

British-Russian rivalry in Afghanistan: 

From the British perspective, the Russian Empire’s expansion into Central Asia threatened to destroy the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, British India. The British feared that the Emirate of Afghanistan would become a staging post for a Russian invasion of India, after the Tsar’s troops would subdue the Central Asian khanates (Khiva, Bokhara, Khokand) one after another.[5]

It was with these thoughts in mind that in 1838 the British launched the First Anglo-Afghan War and attempted to impose a puppet regime on Afghanistan under Shuja Shah. The regime was short lived and proved unsustainable without British military support. By 1842, mobs were attacking the British on the streets of Kabul and the British garrison was forced to abandon the city due to constant civilian attacks.

Afghanistan 1814 When it Border were upto Hyderabad Pakistan upto India Delhi After loosing Punjab to Rebelion of Ranjeet Singh one of Governor of Durrani Empire

Afghanistan 1814 When it Border were upto Hyderabad Pakistan upto India Delhi After loosing Punjab to Rebellion of His Punjabi Governor Ranjeet Singh of Durrani Empire

The retreating British army consisted of approximately 4,500 troops (of which only 690 were European) and 12,000 camp followers. During a series of attacks by Afghan warriors, all Europeans but one, William Brydon, were killed on the march back to India; a few Indian soldiers survived also and crossed into India later.[6] The British curbed their ambitions in Afghanistan following this humiliating retreat from Kabul.

After the Indian rebellion of 1857, successive British governments saw Afghanistan as a buffer state. The Russians, led by Konstantin Kaufman, Mikhail Skobelev, and Mikhail Chernyayev, continued to advance steadily southward through Central Asia towards Afghanistan, and by 1865 Tashkent had been formally annexed.

Samarkand became part of the Russian Empire in 1868, and the independence of Bukhara was virtually stripped away in a peace treaty the same year. Russian control now extended as far as the northern bank of the Amu Darya river.

In a letter to Queen Victoria, Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli proposed “to clear Central Asia of Muscovites and drive them into the Caspian”.[7] He introduced the Royal Titles Act 1876, which added to Victoria’s titles that of Empress of India, putting her at the same level as the Russian Emperor.

After the Great Eastern Crisis broke out and the Russians sent an uninvited diplomatic mission to Kabul in 1878, Britain demanded that the ruler of Afghanistan, Sher Ali, accept a British diplomatic mission. The mission was turned back, and in retaliation a force of 40,000 men was sent across the border, launching the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The war’s conclusion left Abdur Rahman Khan on the throne, and he agreed to let the British control Afghanistan’s foreign affairs, while he consolidated his position on the throne. He managed to suppress internal rebellions with ruthless efficiency and brought much of the country under central control.

In 1884, Russian expansionism brought about another crisis – the Panjdeh Incident – when they seized the oasis of Merv. The Russians claimed all of the former ruler’s territory and fought with Afghan troops over the oasis of Panjdeh. On the brink of war between the two great powers, the British decided to accept the Russian possession of territory north of the Amu Darya as a fait accompli.

Without any Afghan say in the matter, between 1885 and 1888 the Joint Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission agreed the Russians would relinquish the farthest territory captured in their advance, but retain Panjdeh. The agreement delineated a permanent northern Afghan frontier at the Amu Darya, with the loss of a large amount of territory, especially around Panjdeh.

This left the border east of Zorkul lake in the Wakhan. Territory in this area was claimed by Russia, Afghanistan and China. In the 1880s the Afghans advanced north of the lake to the Alichur Pamir.[9] In 1891, Russia sent a military force to the Wakhan and provoked a diplomatic incident by ordering the British Captain Francis Younghusband to leave Bozai Gumbaz in the Little Pamir. This incident, and the report of an incursion by Russian Cossacks south of the Hindu Kush, led the British to suspect Russian involvement “with the Rulers of the petty States on the northern boundary of Kashmir and Jammu”.[10] This was the reason for the Hunza-Nagar Campaign in 1891, after which the British established control over Hunza and Nagar. In 1892 the British sent the Earl of Dunmore to the Pamirs to investigate. Britain was concerned that Russia would take advantage of Chinese weakness in policing the area to gain territory, and in 1893 reached agreement with Russia to demarcate the rest of the border, a process completed in 1895.

Great Game moves eastward

By the 1890s, the Central Asian khanates of Khiva, Bukhara and Kokand had fallen, becoming Russian vassals. With Central Asia in the Tsar’s grip, the Great Game now shifted eastward to China, Mongolia and Tibet. In 1904, the British invaded Lhasa, a pre-emptive strike against Russian intrigues and secret meetings between the 13th Dalai Lama’s envoy and Tsar Nicholas II. The Dalai Lama fled into exile to China and Mongolia. The British were greatly concerned at the prospect of a Russian invasion of the Crown colony of India, though Russia – badly defeated by Japan in the Russo-Japanese war and weakened by internal rebellion – could not realistically afford a military conflict against Britain. China under Qing Dynasty, however, was another matter.

The Middle Kingdom had badly atrophied under the Manchus, the ruling ethnic caste of the Qing Dynasty. Two-and-a-half centuries of decadent living, internecine feuds and imperviousness to a changing world had weakened the Empire. China’s weaponry and military tactics were outdated, even medieval. Modern factories, steel bridges, railways and telegraphs were almost nonexistent in most regions. Natural disasters, famine and internal rebellions had further enfeebled China. In the late 19th century, Japan and the Great Powers easily carved out trade and territorial concessions. These were humiliating submissions for the once all-powerful Manchus. Still, the central lesson of the war with Japan was not lost on the Russian General Staff: an Asian country using Western technology and industrial production methods could defeat a great European power.

In 1906, Tsar Nicholas II sent a secret agent to China to collect intelligence on the reform and modernization of the Qing Dynasty. The task was given to Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, at the time a colonel in the Russian army, who travelled to China with French sinologist Paul Pelliot. Mannerheim was disguised as an ethnographic collector, using a Finnish passport.[12] Finland was, at the time, a Grand Duchy. For two years, Mannerheim proceeded through Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi, Henan, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia to Beijing. At the sacred Buddhist mountain of Wutai Shan he even met the 13th Dalai Lama.[13] However, while Mannerheim was in China in 1907, Russia and Britain brokered the Anglo-Russian Agreement, ending the classical period of the Great Game.

Anglo-Russian Alliance

In the run-up to World War I, both empires were alarmed by the unified German Empire’s increasing activity in the Middle East, notably the German project of the Baghdad Railway, which would open up Mesopotamia and Persia to German trade and technology. The ministers Alexander Izvolsky and Edward Grey agreed to resolve their long-standing conflicts in Asia in order to make an effective stand against the German advance into the region. The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 brought a close to the classic period of the Great Game.

The borders of the Russian imperial territories of Khiva, Bukhara and Kokand in the time period of 1902–1903

The Russians accepted that the politics of Afghanistan were solely under British control as long as the British guaranteed not to change the regime. Russia agreed to conduct all political relations with Afghanistan through the British. The British agreed that they would maintain the current borders and actively discourage any attempt by Afghanistan to encroach on Russian territory. Persia was divided into three zones: a British zone in the south, a Russian zone in the north, and a narrow neutral zone serving as buffer in between.

In regards to Tibet, both powers agreed to maintain territorial integrity of this buffer state and “to deal with Lhasa only through China, the suzerain power”

A less intensive British-Soviet rivalry: 

The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 nullified existing treaties and a second phase of the Great Game began. The Third Anglo-Afghan War of 1919 was precipitated by the assassination of the then ruler Habibullah Khan. His son and successor Amanullah declared full independence and attacked the northern frontier of British India. Although little was gained militarily, the stalemate was resolved with the Rawalpindi Agreement of 1919. Afghanistan re-established its self-determination in foreign affairs.

In May 1921, Afghanistan and the Russian Soviet Republic signed a Treaty of Friendship. The Soviets provided Amanullah with aid in the form of cash, technology and military equipment. British influence in Afghanistan waned, but relations between Afghanistan and the Russians remained equivocal, with many Afghans desiring to regain control of Merv and Panjdeh. The Soviets, for their part, desired to extract more from the friendship treaty than Amanullah was willing to give.

The United Kingdom imposed minor sanctions and diplomatic slights as a response to the treaty, fearing that Amanullah was slipping out of their sphere of influence and realising that the policy of the Afghanistan government was to have control of all of the Pashtun speaking groups on both sides of the Durand Line. In 1923, Amanullah responded by taking the title padshah – “emperor” – and by offering refuge for Muslims who fled the Soviet Union, and Indian nationalists in exile from the Raj.

Amanullah’s programme of reform was, however, insufficient to strengthen the army quickly enough; in 1928 he abdicated under pressure. The individual who most benefited from the crisis was Mohammed Nadir Shah, who reigned from 1929 to 1933. Both the Soviets and the British played the situation to their advantage: the Soviets getting aid in dealing with Uzbek rebellion in 1930 and 1931, while the British aided Afghanistan in creating a 40,000 man professional army.

With the advent of World War II came the temporary alignment of British and Soviet interests in 1940. Both governments pressured Afghanistan for the expulsion of a large German non-diplomatic contingent, which they believed to be engaging in espionage. Afghanistan complied in 1941. A period of win-win cooperation continued between the USSR and UK against Nazi Germany until the end of the war in 1945. This less intensive second phase of the Great Game would enter a new era owing to post WW2 geopolitical changes.

Cold War

After the success of the temporary Second World War alliance among the Allied forces, which included the United States of America, the British Commonwealth and the Soviet Union (USSR); a new era of geopolitical realignment began which left the US and the USSR as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. During this post-Second World War, post-colonial period the legacy of the Great Game would sow the seeds of a new sustained state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies; and the Communist world, led by the Soviet Union together with its satellite states and allies. This era. coined the “Cold War”, or “Great Game II” by some scholars;[2][3] was so named because it never featured any direct military action as both sides possessed nuclear weapons and their use would have probably guaranteed their mutual assured destruction.

Historians trace the start of Cold War era to 1947. This was the year that decolonisation of the British Empire started which has been described as one of the focal points of Cold War evolution. Britain’s withdrawal changed the dynamics of inter-Asian geopolitics, especially in Central Asia and the Middle East; leading to several conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict, the 1953 Iranian coup d’état and the 1959 Iraqi Revolution.[16] The USSR discovered the same bitter truth within its 1979 misadventure in Afghanistan as the British had found in the 19th Century, and withdrew its last troops from the so-called “graveyard of empires” – Afghanistan.- in 1988. The Cold War culminated with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

The relevance of the Great Game in the Cold War context is evident in the final years of Mohammad Najibullah, the last Soviet-backed president of Afghanistan. During his 1992-96 refuge in the UN compound in Kabul, while waiting for the UN to negotiate his safe passage to India, he engaged himself by translating Peter Hopkirk’s book The Great Game[19] into his mother tongue Pashto.[20]A few months before his execution by the Taliban, he quoted, “Afghans keep making the same mistake,” reflecting upon his translation to a visitor.

End of the Cold War to 2001 : 

In the 1990s, the use of the expression “The New Great Game” in reference to classical “Great Game” appeared;[22][23][24][25][26][27] to describe the competition between various Western powers, Russia, and China for political influence and access to raw materials in Central Eurasia—”influence, power, hegemony and profits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus”.[28][29]

Many authors and analysts viewed this new “game” as centring around regional petroleum politics in Central Asian republics. Noopolitik plays a more central role than ever in the balance of power of the New Great Game;[30] and instead of competing for actual control over a geographic area – “pipelines, tanker routes, petroleum consortiums, and contracts” – are the prizes of the new Great Game

2001 to present : 

In the aftermath of the attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan in order to aid Afghan rebels of the Northern Alliance in removing the Taliban regime which had allowed al-Qaeda to operate training camps within Afghanistan. By the end of 2001 the Taliban regime had lost control of most of the territory it had held and its leadership had crossed the border into Pakistan’s tribal areas. United States forces and their NATO allies have remained in Afghanistan supporting the current regime of President Hamid Karzai. This has led to new geopolitical efforts for control and influence in the region.[32] Many commentators have either compared these political machinations to the Great Game as played out by the Russians and British in the nineteenth century, or described them as part of a continuing Great Game,[2][3] and has become prevalent in literature about the region; appearing in book titles,[31] academic journals,[29] news articles, and government reports.[33][34][35][36][37] While energy resources and military bases are mentioned as part of the Great Game, so is the continuing jostling for strategic advantage between Great powers and between the regional powers in mountainous border regions in the Himalayas. In the 21st century, the great game continues.[38]

Chronology : 

1582-1639: Russians occupy the forest zone north of Central Asia.

1717: Russians fail to take Khiva

1735: Baskir War blocks plan to invade Central Asia

1743: Orenburg founded.

1757: British are victorious in the Battle of Plessey in India.

1801: Russian invasion called back.

About this time most of central Asia was divided between the Khanate of Khiva (south of the Aral Sea), the Emirate of Bukhara (center) and the Khanate of Kokand (east).

1810: Henry Pottinger and Charles Christie reach Isfahan from Nushki, Balochistan, Christie via Herat.

1819: Nikolay Muravyov visits Khiva.

1820(circa): Aga Mehdi or Mehkti Rafailov, Russian agent in Kashgar or Yarkand. 1821: Russians visit Bukhara.

1825: William Moorcroft (explorer) visits Bukhara

1830: Arthur Conolly fails to reach Khiva, then travels from the Caspian to India.

1831: Alexander Burnes charts the Indus, then reaches Kabul and Bukhara.

1838: British force Persia to abandon Siege of Herat (1838).

1839: British occupy Kabul.

1840: Russian attack on Khiva fails; Abbott and Shakespear at Khiva.

1842: British expelled from Kabul with great loss, retake Kabul and withdraw (First Anglo-Afghan War); Arthur Connolly and Charles Stoddart executed at Bukhara.

1843: British annex Sindh

1849: British annex Punjab.

1853: Russians found Kazala on the Aral Sea and Ak-Mechet to the east.

1853-56: Crimean War.

1856: British again keep Persians from Herat.

1857: Indian Mutiny.

1858: Ignatyev visits Khiva and Bukhara.

1860s and later: British agents explore north of India.

1863: Afghans annex Herat.

1864: Chernyayev takes Chimkent from Bukhara; Turkestan (city) taken from Kokand.

1865: Chernyayev takes Tashkent which becomes the capital of Russian Turkistan.

1868: Kaufman takes Samarkand; Bukhara a protectorate; part of Zarafshan River valley annexed.

1868: George W. Hayward, Robert Shaw and a Russian at Kashgar.

1869: Krasnovodsk founded on the east side of the Caspian.

1871: Russians occupy upper Ili River.

1873: Kaufman makes Khiva a Russian protectorate.

1875: Kaufman conquers Kokand.

1877: China regains Xinjiang from Yakub Beg.

1878: Second Anglo-Afghan War.

1879: Russian defeat at Geok Tepe.

1881: Russians take Geok Tepe; Ili valley returned to China

1884: Russians take Merv.

1885: Russians take Pandjeh south of Merv on the road to Herat.

1888: Trans-Caspian railway from Krasnovodsk reaches Samarkand; Russians in Hunza.

1891: British take Hunza.

1895:British take Chitral.

1904: Younghusband reaches Tibet.

1906: Tashkent Railway: direct rail connection to European Russia.

In popular culture

Kim by Rudyard Kipling
The Lotus and the Wind by John Masters
Flashman by George MacDonald Fraser
Flashman at the Charge by George MacDonald Fraser
Flashman in the Great Game by George MacDonald Fraser (1999) ISBN 0-00-651299-2
The Game by Laurie R. King (2004), a Sherlock Holmes pastiche, one of the Mary Russell series. ISBN 0-553-80194-5
The song “Pink India” from musician Stephen Malkmus’ self-titled album.
The documentary The Devil’s Wind by Iqbal Malhotra.[39]
Afuganisu-tan a Webcomic by Japanese manga artist, Timaking
Declare by Tim Powers
The Far Pavilions by M. M. Kaye Viking Press, LLC, New York, 1978
The plot of the James Bond film “The Living Daylights” partially revolves around an updated version of the Great Game. Bond’s character travels to Afghanistan and convinces the local mujaheddin to turn upon the Soviet occupiers, to whom the mujaheddin had previously sold heroin.

Bibliography

The timeline of the Great Game online online.
Books
Walberg, Eric (2011). Postmodern Imperialism: Geopolitics and the Great Games. Clarity Press. p. 300. ISBN 9780983353935. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Hopkirk, Peter (1992). The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia. Kodansha International. p. 564. ISBN 9781568360225. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
John Brobst, Peter (2005). The Future Of The Great Game (Series on International, Political, and Economic History). University Of Akron Press. p. 199. ISBN 9781931968102. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Kleveman, Lutz (2003). The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia. Atlantic Monthly Press. p. 288. ISBN 9780871139061. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Johnson, Robert (2006). Spying for Empire: The Great Game in Central and South Asia, 1757-1947. Greenhill Books. p. 304. ISBN 9780199580361. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Brysac, Shareen, Meyer, Karl and (2006). Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Asia. Basic Books. p. 704. ISBN 9780465045761. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Cooley, Alexander (2012). Great Games, Local Rules: The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia. Oxford University Press. p. 272. ISBN 9780199929825. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
Naik, J. A. (1970). Soviet policy towards India from Stalin to Brezhnev. Vikas Publications. p. 201. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Paksoy, H.B. (1991). Modern Encyclopedia in Russia and Soviet Union, Vol. 4,. Academic International Press. pp. 5–20. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Tamm, Eric Enno. (2011). The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China. Counterpoint. ISBN 9781582437347. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Vogelsang, Willem (2001). The Afghans (Peoples of Asia). Wiley-Blackwel. p. 408. ISBN 9780631198413. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Tunzelmann, Alex Von (2007). Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire. Henry Holt and Co. p. 416. ISBN 9780805080735. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the Cia, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin. p. 333. ISBN 9781594200076. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Rashid, Ahmed (2000). Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 9781860648304. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Yapp, Malcolm (2002). “The Legend of the Great Game”, Proceedings of the British Academy Volume 111: 2000 Lectures and Memoirs. Oxford University Press. pp. 179–198. ISBN 9780197262597. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Mahajan, Sneh (2001). British Foreign Policy 1874-1914: The Role of India, Volume 4 of Routledge Studies in Modern European History. Routledge. p. 288. ISBN 9780415260107. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Lloyd, Trevor Owen (2001). Empire: The History of the British Empire. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 245. ISBN 9781852852597.
Journals
Edwards, Matthew (March 2003). “The New Great Game and the new great gamers: Disciples of Kipling and Mackinder”. Central Asian Survey 22 (1): 83–103. doi:10.1080/0263493032000108644. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Ahrari, Mohammed E.; James Beal (January 1996). “The New Great Game in Muslim Central Asia”. McNair Paper 47. Institute for National Strategic Studies and National Defense University. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Cohen, Ariel (January 25, 1996). “The New “Great Game”: Oil Politics in the Caucasus and Central Asia”. Backgrounder #1065. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Rashid, Ahmed (10 April 1997). “Central Asia: Power Play”. Far Eastern Economic Review.
Menon, Rajan (2003). “The New Great Game in Central Asia”. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 45 (2): 187–204. doi:10.1080/00396338.2003.9688581. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
Morgan, Gerald (1973). “Myth and reality in the great game”. Asian Affairs 4 (1): 55–65. doi:10.1080/03068377308729652. Retrieved 27 August 2012.

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Game

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Sir William Hay Mc Naughten

Sir William Hay Mc Naughten

Sir William Hay MacNaghten (1793-1841) went to Madras as a cadet in 1809, but in 1816 joined the Bengal Civil Service. In 1830 he was appointed political secretary to Lord William Bentinck, Governor General of India. He remained in this post when Bentinck’s successor, Lord Auckland, was appointed in 1836. MacNaghten was also made the Governor General of India’s envoy to Afghanistan. Convinced that Russian intentions on Afghanistan and India were dangerously real, he believed it necessary to place Afghanistan under British tutelage.

MacNaghten was created a baronet in 1840, but as the political and military situation in Afghanistan deteriorated he failed to heed the warnings given by Sir Abraham Roberts and others. Sir William made things worse by offending many Afghan leaders and cutting traditional payments to the hill tribes who controlled access through the passes to India. He was shot and murdered on 23 December 1841 by Akbar Khan the son of the former Amir Dost Mohammed. The envoy’s body was then hacked to pieces by fanatical Ghazis. The British garrison in Kabul was forced to surrender soon after.

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1984-1994: CIA Funds Militant Jihadi Textbooks for Afghanistan and Pakistan : 

The US, and CIA through USAID and the University of Nebraska, and through Thomas Gouttierre,( Father of Taliban and thier Jihadi literature ),  spends millions of dollars developing and printing textbooks for Afghan schoolchildren. The textbooks are “filled with violent images and militant Islamic teachings, part of covert attempts to spur resistance to the Soviet occupation.” For instance, children are “taught to count with illustrations showing tanks, missiles, and land mines.” Lacking any alternative, millions of these textbooks are used long after 1994; the Taliban will still be using them in 2001.

Dr Thomas Gouttierre with His Wife and Son in Afghanistan while in Peace Corps 1964-74.

Dr Thomas Gouttierre with His Wife and Son in Afghanistan while Peace Corps 1964-74.

Thomas Gouttierre went to Afghanistan in 1964 as a Peace Corps volunteer. He returned to the United States in 1967 and earned a master’s degree in Islamic Studies at Indiana University. In 1969 he went back to Afghanistan as a Fulbright Scholar. He stayed on to work for the Fulbright Foundation’s Afghan-American Education Commission after the conclusion of his two-year fellowship. In 1974 Gouttierre became director of the Center of Afghanistan Studies at the University of Nebraska at Omaha

Dr Thomas Gouttierre Served in Afghanistan in 1964-69 in Peace Corps and Had Links with Taliban since then .

Dr Thomas Gouttierre Served in Afghanistan in 1964-69 in Peace Corps and Had Links with Taliban since then .

In 2002, the US will start producing less violent versions of the same books, which President Bush says will have “respect for human dignity, instead of indoctrinating students with fanaticism and bigotry.” (He will fail to mention who created those earlier books.) (Stephens and Ottaway 3/23/2002; Off 5/6/2002) A University of Nebraska academic named Thomas Gouttierre leads the textbook program. Journalist Robert Dreyfuss will later reveal that although funding for Gouttierre’s work went through USAID, it was actually paid for by the CIA.

Af-Pak Jihadi Text Book Printed in  Pakistan ISI  via Afghan Lyceum and Supplied to Afghan refugees to Develop Jihad for Great Game

Af-Pak Jihadi Text Books About 13 Million in last 30 Years Printed in Pakistan via ISI and Afghan Lyceum and Supplied to Afghan refugees to Develop Jihad for Great Game

These Book were distributed in Afghan refugees camps in peshawar and FATA and Pakhtunkhwa area from a office in Peshawar run by Mujahideen and Al-qaeda Memeber under ISI and CIA , Project known as Afghan Lyceum and it was still running now in Islamabad even today .

Enron Gives Taliban Millions in Bribes in Effort to Get Afghan Pipeline Built .

Unocal will pay Gouttierre to work with the Taliban (see December 1997) and he will host visits of Taliban leaders to the US, including trips in 1997 and 1999 (see December 4, 1997 and July-August 1999). (Dreyfuss 2005, pp. 328) 1996-September 11, 2001:

The Associated Press will later report that the Enron corporation bribes Taliban officials as part of a “no-holds-barred bid to strike a deal for an energy pipeline in Afghanistan.” Atul Davda, a senior director for Enron’s International Division, will later claim, “Enron had intimate contact with Taliban officials.

” Presumably this effort began around 1996, when a power plant Enron was building in India ran into trouble and Enron began an attempt to supply it with natural gas via a planned pipeline through Afghanistan (see 1995-November 2001 and June 24, 1996). In 1997, Enron executives privately meet with Taliban officials in Texas (see December 4, 1997). They are “given the red-carpet treatment and promised a fortune if the deal [goes] through.” It is alleged Enron secretly employs CIA agents to carry out its dealings overseas.

Dr Thomas Gouttierre of University of Nebraska USA .

Dr Thomas Gouttierre of University of Nebraska USA .

According to a CIA source, “Enron proposed to pay the Taliban large sums of money in a ‘tax’ on every cubic foot of gas and oil shipped through a pipeline they planned to build.” This source claims Enron paid more than $400 million for a feasibility study on the pipeline and “a large portion of that cost was pay-offs to the Taliban.” Enron continues to encourage the Taliban about the pipeline even after Unocal officially gives up on the pipeline in the wake of the African embassy bombings (see December 5, 1998).

An investigation after Enron’s collapse in 2001 (see December 2, 2001) will determine that some of this pay-off money ended up funding al-Qaeda. (Barrett 3/7/2002)

June 24, 1996: Uzbekistan Cuts a Deal with Enron :

Uzbekistan signs a deal with Enron “that could lead to joint development of the Central Asian nation’s potentially rich natural gas fields.” [Houston Chronicle, 6/25/1996] The $1.3 billion venture teams Enron with the state companies of Russia and Uzbekistan. [Houston Chronicle, 6/30/1996] On July 8, 1996, the US government agrees to give $400 million to help Enron and an Uzbek state company develop these natural gas fields. [Oil & Gas Journal, 7/8/1996]

Unocal Establishes Pipeline Training Facility Near Bin Laden’s Compound: 

Thomas Gouttierre. [Source: University of Nebraska] Unocal pays University of Nebraska $900,000 to set up a training facility near Osama bin Laden’s Kandahar compound, to train 400 Afghan teachers, electricians, carpenters and pipe fitters in anticipation of using them for their pipeline in Afghanistan.

Dr Thomas Gouttierre of University of Nebraka Omaha who Wrote these Jihadi Books for Mujhaideen and Taliban

Dr Thomas Gouttierre of University of Nebraka Omaha who Wrote these Jihadi Books for Mujhaideen and Taliban

One hundred and fifty students are already attending classes in southern Afghanistan. Unocal is playing University of Nebraska professor Thomas Gouttierre to develop the training program. Gouttierre travels to Afghanistan and meets with Taliban leaders, and also arranges for some Taliban leaders to visit the US around this time (see December 4, 1997). (Lees 12/14/1997; Coll 2004, pp. 364)

December 4, 1997: Taliban Representatives Visit Unocal in Texas Taliban representatives in Texas, 1997: 

It will later be revealed that the CIA paid Gouttierre to head a program at the University of Nebraska that created textbooks for Afghanistan promoting violence and jihad (see 1984-1994).Gouttierre will continue to work with the Taliban after Unocal officially cuts off ties with them. For instance, he will host some Taliban leaders visiting the US in 1999 (see July-August 1999).

[Source: Lions Gate Films] Representatives of the Taliban are invited guests to the Texas headquarters of Unocal to negotiate their support for the pipeline. Future President George W. Bush is Governor of Texas at the time. The Taliban appear to agree to a $2 billion pipeline deal, but will do the deal only if the US officially recognizes the Taliban regime.

The Taliban meet with US officials. According to the Daily Telegraph, “the US government, which in the past has branded the Taliban’s policies against women and children ‘despicable,’ appears anxious to please the fundamentalists to clinch the lucrative pipeline contract.” A BBC regional correspondent says that “the proposal to build a pipeline across Afghanistan is part of an international scramble to profit from developing the rich energy resources of the Caspian Sea.” (BBC 12/4/1997; Lees 12/14/1997)

It has been claimed that the Taliban meet with Enron officials while in Texas (see 1996-September 11, 2001). Enron, headquartered in Texas, has an large financial interest in the pipeline at the time (see June 24, 1996).

The Taliban also visited  Thomas Gouttierre,( Father of Taliban and thier Jihadi literature )  an academic at the University of Nebraska, who is a consultant for Unocal and also has been paid by the CIA for his work in Afghanistan (see 1984-1994 and December 1997). Gouttierre takes them on a visit to Mt. Rushmore. (Dreyfuss 2005, pp. 328-329) July-August 1999: Taliban Leaders Visit US About a dozen Afghan leaders visit the US. They are militia commanders, mostly Taliban, and some with ties to al-Qaeda. A few are opponents of the Taliban. Their exact names and titles remain classified. For five weeks, they visit numerous locales in the US, including Mt. Rushmore.

All their expenses are paid by the US government and the University of Nebraska. Thomas Gouttierre, an academic heading an Afghanistan program at the University of Nebraska, hosts their visit.

Gouttierre is working as a consultant to Unocal at the time, and some Taliban visits to the US are paid for by Unocal, such as a visit two years earlier (see December 4, 1997). However, it is unknown if Unocal plays a role in this particular trip. Gouttierre had previously been paid by the CIA to create Afghan textbooks promoting violence and jihad (see 1984-1994).  (Berens 10/21/2001)

July-August 1999: Taliban Leaders Visit US

About a dozen Afghan Taliban Leaders visit the US. They are militia commanders, mostly Taliban, and some with ties to al-Qaeda.

A few are opponents of the Taliban. Their exact names and titles remain classified. For five weeks, they visit numerous locales in the US, including Mt. Rushmore. All their expenses are paid by the US government and the University of Nebraska.Thomas Gouttierre, an academic heading an Afghanistan program at the University of Nebraska, hosts their visit.

Taliban in Texas as Guest of George Bush Governor Texas and Unicol

Taliban in Texas as Guest of George Bush Governor Texas and Unicol

Gouttierre is working as a consultant to Unocal at the time, and some Taliban visits to the US are paid for by Unocal, such as a visit two years earlier (see December 4, 1997).

However, it is unknown if Unocal plays a role in this particular trip. Gouttierre had previously been paid by the CIA to create Afghan textbooks promoting violence and jihad (see 1984-1994). It is unknown if any of these visitors meet with US officials during their trip. [Chicago Tribune, 10/21/2001]

source:  http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=a84textbooks&printerfriendly=true

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